Главная Экономика Formation of the labor market in Ukraine
So, in the last decade are as follows:
The reduction of employment and unemployment rising, begins with the mid 90's. The main reason for the dismissals of workers have begun restructuring the economy: the termination of businesses whose products are not found or found uncompetitive markets, the transition to other forms of ownership. Such processes have experienced all the transition countries and wherever they begins, an increasing number of unemployed, but in conditions where the transition to market is consistently hard-working, released from state institutions and enterprises are working on new non-state enterprises, start your own business etc..
The existence in Ukraine of involuntary underemployment (hidden unemployment). For those who are incompletely occupied, are people who are on forced leave, ex officio, working part time or week.
Change in employment structure, which is the ratio between people working in different sectors (industries) economy.
It should focus on problematic issues: an imbalance between supply and demand of labor, shortage of personnel working occupations, low job quality characteristics and, consequently, increasing regional disparities and structural employment, uncontrolled outflow of labor to foreign countries, regressive changes in the workforce and motivation to work. There are unsolved problems and untapped reserves to attract employers to the state policy of employment.
One of the features that adversely affect the labor market and the level of social tension is excessive stratification of the population by income and reduce its life.
The objective of the current stage in the regulation of employment is a transition to active labor market policy, which, unfortunately, not carried out. The basis should be entrusted management model, the central element of which are key regulators of the labor market: wages as the price of labor services, competition in the labor market, labor mobility, unemployment. According to these parameters is, on the one hand, self-regulation in the labor market, on the other - there is state intervention that implements coordination, challenging or limiting role in the management process.
Priorities for reforming the Ukrainian labor market is improving wages, empower the general public official of basic and additional income, social support specific groups, enhance quality and competitiveness of the workforce, promoting effective and appropriate movement of the working population, preventing the growth of unemployment by creating jobs through various funding sources, implementation and release mechanisms of redistribution, economic restructuring and rising domestic production.
Analyzing the mechanism of the modern labor market, we can see that in modern economic systems established mechanism of the labor market with elements of state intervention, ie, its state regulation.
The number of employed population aged 15-70 in the first half of 2007 increased by 91.1 thousand persons and accounted for 20.8 million. The employment rate of those aged 15-70 years increased by the period in general in Ukraine from 57,9% to 58,5%. The growth of this indicator was due to employment growth as urban residents and rural areas. The number of unemployed in the first half of 2007, compared with the first six months of last year, fell by 50.7 thousand and reached 1.5 million.
Unemployment rate of population aged 15-70 years (ILO methodology) in general in Ukraine amounted to 6,6% of economically active population in that age against 6,8% in the first half of 2006. This figure was lower than the average in EU countries, which amounted to 7,1%.
The positive is the fact that the number of people of working age are in desperate search of work, and international methodology may also belong to the category of unemployed decreased from 209.4 thousand on average in the first half of 2006 to 175.3 thousand on average in the first half of 2007.
Economic development accompanied by increased demand for labor. Within 10 months of 2007, employers have provided 236 thousand state employment information on availability of vacancies. Total number of registered vacancies in employment was almost 2 million The biggest demand for workers registered in construction, trade, repair of motor vehicles, household appliances and personal use, in manufacturing.
Within 10 months of 2007 the complex of services and material support in Ukraine received over 2 million unemployed citizens. The number of persons who were employed by the assignment of the employment centers, compared with the corresponding period last year, increased by 31.3 thousand and reached 966.4 thousand people, including by granting employers employed 30.7 thousand unemployed; 21,3 thousand unemployed people received one-time payment of unemployment benefits and organized their own business. If the 2006 level of employment of citizens seeking work was 39.7%, in January-October 2007 - 46.0%. The growth of this index occurred in all regions.
Within 10 months of 2007 the number of people who with the assistance of public employment service were involved in vocational training increased by 22 800 or 13,1%.
Coverage of professional training of unemployed citizens rose from 10.1% in January-October 2006 to 13,1% in January-October 2007. This situation is typical for all regions, while in Sevastopol their opportunities in the labor market through expanded professional training one in four unemployed in Kyiv - 42,0% of the unemployed.
However, in Ukraine, new and always remain a number of problems with the specifics of Dispersed ensure the competitiveness of unemployed citizens in a market economy and reducing the capacity of a legitimate sphere of application of labor. Not enough consistency in the methodology for unemployed people, not worked out its methods of assessment across the whole labor market. Unresolved problems and labor market statistics. Also remains unresolved terminological inconsistency, leading to different interpretations of certain categories and concepts, such as: competitiveness, workforce, quality of labor potential, unemployed, unemployment, employment, etc. unregulated.
Positive trends in the labor market not only accompanied by wage growth, but also a substantial reduction of debt, which at the time of the government headed by Viktor Yanukovych (August 2006 - March 2007) decreased by 19.1% or 208.3 million As at 1 April 2007, arrears of wages was 880.8 million.
"The main motivation for strengthening these trends has become a competitive salary," - said the Minister. In particular, the Government is taking consistent steps to increase the minimum wage and its phased approach to the subsistence minimum for able-bodied person. Since the Government made further practical steps aimed at strengthening of social partnership, the introduction of effective dialogue between the authorities, trade unions and employers' organizations, according to international norms and laws of Ukraine. Makes efforts and other measures to improve social policy of the Government.